container.hpp 104 KB
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#ifndef _CONTAINER_HPP
#define _CONTAINER_HPP


#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stddef.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <memory>
#include <new>
#include <iterator>
#include <cmath>
#include <assert.h>
#include <limits>
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#include "inmost_common.h"
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#define NEW_CHUNKS
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#define __VOLATILE volatile
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//#define OUT_OF_RANGE

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//TODO
// 1. change to uniform size_type instead of size_t, make it INMOST_DATA_ENUM_TYPE
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/*
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template<class element, class T1> struct isInputRandomIterators
{
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	static void constraints(T1 a, T1 b) { ++a; (void)a++; a==a; a!=a; a-b; }
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	isInputRandomIterators() { void(*p)(T1,T1) = constraints; (void)p; }
};

template<class element, class T1> struct isInputForwardIterators
{
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	static void constraints(T1 a) {++a; (void)a++; }
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	isInputForwardIterators() { void(*p)(T1) = constraints; (void)p; }
};
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*/
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namespace INMOST
{
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	//add more templates as needed
	template<class T> struct make_unsigned;
	template<> struct make_unsigned<char> {typedef unsigned char type;};
	template<> struct make_unsigned<short> {typedef unsigned short type;};
	template<> struct make_unsigned<int> {typedef unsigned int type;};
	template<> struct make_unsigned<long> {typedef unsigned long type;};
	template<> struct make_unsigned<long long> {typedef unsigned long long type;};
	template<> struct make_unsigned<unsigned char> {typedef unsigned char type;};
	template<> struct make_unsigned<unsigned short> {typedef unsigned short type;};
	template<> struct make_unsigned<unsigned int> {typedef unsigned int type;};
	template<> struct make_unsigned<unsigned long> {typedef unsigned long type;};
	template<> struct make_unsigned<unsigned long long> {typedef unsigned long long type;};
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//#define USE_OPTIMIZED_ARRAY_ALLOCATION
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#if defined(PACK_ARRAY)
#pragma pack(push,r1,4)
#endif
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	// notice: array class would not properly support classes that contain self-references
	//         like std::map
	// notice: next class shell have to implement same algorithms as array
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	template<typename element>//, typename enumerator = unsigned int>
	class array
	{
	public:
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		typedef unsigned size_type;
		typedef make_unsigned<size_type>::type uenum;
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		template<typename etype>
		class _iterator
		{
		private:
			etype * e;
		public:
			typedef etype * pointer;
			typedef etype & reference;
			typedef etype value_type;
			typedef ptrdiff_t difference_type;
			typedef std::random_access_iterator_tag iterator_category;
			_iterator():e(NULL){}
			_iterator(etype * i):e(i){}
			_iterator(const _iterator & other){e = other.e;}
			~_iterator() {};
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			_iterator operator -(size_t n) const { return _iterator(e-n); }
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			_iterator & operator -=(size_t n) { e-=n; return *this; }
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			_iterator operator +(size_t n) const { return _iterator(e+n); }
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			_iterator & operator +=(size_t n) { e+=n; return *this; }
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			_iterator & operator ++(){ ++e; return *this;}
			_iterator operator ++(int){ return _iterator(e++); }
			_iterator & operator --(){ --e; return *this; }
			_iterator operator --(int){ return _iterator(e--); }
			ptrdiff_t operator -(const _iterator & other) const {return e-other.e;}
			etype & operator *() { return *e; }
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			const etype & operator *() const { return *e; }
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			etype * operator ->() { return e; }
			_iterator & operator =(_iterator const & other) { e = other.e; return *this; }
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			bool operator ==(const _iterator & other) const { return e == other.e;}
			bool operator !=(const _iterator & other) const { return e != other.e;}
			bool operator <(const _iterator & other) const { return e < other.e;}
			bool operator >(const _iterator & other) const { return e > other.e;}
			bool operator <=(const _iterator & other) const { return e <= other.e;}
			bool operator >=(const _iterator & other) const { return e >= other.e;}
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			operator void *() {return static_cast<void *> (e);}
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			operator const void *() const {return const_cast<const void *> (e);}
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		};
		typedef _iterator<element> iterator;
		typedef _iterator<const element> const_iterator;
		template<typename etype>
		class _reverse_iterator
		{
		private:
			etype * e;
		public:
			typedef etype * pointer;
			typedef etype & reference;
			typedef etype value_type;
			typedef ptrdiff_t difference_type;
			typedef std::random_access_iterator_tag iterator_category;
			_reverse_iterator():e(NULL){}
			_reverse_iterator(etype * i):e(i){}
			_reverse_iterator(const _reverse_iterator & other){e = other.e;}
			~_reverse_iterator() {};
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			_reverse_iterator operator -(size_t n) const { return _reverse_iterator(e+n); }
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			_reverse_iterator & operator -=(size_t n) { e+=n; return *this; }
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			_reverse_iterator operator +(size_t n) const {return _reverse_iterator(e-n); }
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			_reverse_iterator & operator +=(size_t n) { e-=n; return *this; }
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			_reverse_iterator & operator ++(){ --e; return *this;}
			_reverse_iterator operator ++(int){ return _reverse_iterator(e--); }
			_reverse_iterator & operator --(){ ++e; return *this; }
			_reverse_iterator operator --(int){ return _reverse_iterator(e++); }
			ptrdiff_t operator -(const _reverse_iterator & other) const {return other.e-e;}
			etype & operator *() { return *e; }
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			const etype & operator *() const { return *e; }
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			etype * operator ->() { return e; }
			_reverse_iterator & operator =(_reverse_iterator const & other) { e = other.e; return *this;}
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			bool operator ==(const _reverse_iterator & other) const { return e == other.e;}
			bool operator !=(const _reverse_iterator & other) const { return e != other.e;}
			bool operator <(const _reverse_iterator & other) const { return e < other.e;}
			bool operator >(const _reverse_iterator & other) const { return e > other.e;}
			bool operator <=(const _reverse_iterator & other) const { return e <= other.e;}
			bool operator >=(const _reverse_iterator & other) const { return e >= other.e;}
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			operator void *() {return static_cast<void *> (e);}
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			operator const void *() const {return static_cast<const void *> (e);}
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		};
		typedef _reverse_iterator<element> reverse_iterator;
		typedef _reverse_iterator<const element> const_reverse_iterator;
	private:
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		element * m_arr;
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		size_type m_size;
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		//notice: push_back, pop_back, insert, erase are optimized for current growth_formula
		__INLINE static size_type growth_formula(size_type future_size)
		{
			uenum v = static_cast<uenum>(future_size);
			v--;
			v|= (v>>1);
			v|= (v>>2);
			v|= (v>>4);
			v|= (v>>8);
			v|= (v>>16);
			//TODO produces compiler warning
			//if( sizeof(size_type) > 4 ) v|= (v>>32); //must be compile time brench
			v++;
			return static_cast<size_type>(v);
		}
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	public:
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		__INLINE element * data() {return m_arr;}
		__INLINE const element * data() const {return m_arr;}
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		array() {m_arr = NULL; m_size = 0;}
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		array(size_type n,element c = element())
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		{
			m_size = n;
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			m_arr = static_cast<element *>(malloc(sizeof(element)*growth_formula(m_size)));
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			assert(m_arr != NULL);
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			for(size_type i = 0; i < m_size; i++) new (m_arr+i) element(c);
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		}
		template<class InputIterator>
		array(InputIterator first, InputIterator last)
		{
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			//isInputForwardIterators<element,InputIterator>();
			m_size = static_cast<size_type>(std::distance(first,last));
			m_arr = static_cast<element *>(malloc(sizeof(element)*growth_formula(m_size)));
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			assert(m_arr != NULL);
			{
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				size_type i = 0;
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				InputIterator it = first;
				while(it != last) new (m_arr+i++) element(*it++);
			}
		}
		array(const array & other)
		{
			m_size = other.m_size;
			if( m_size ) 
			{
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				m_arr = static_cast<element *>(malloc(sizeof(element)*growth_formula(m_size)));
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				assert(m_arr != NULL);
			}
			else m_arr = NULL;
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			for(size_type i = 0; i < m_size; i++) new (m_arr+i) element(other.m_arr[i]);
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		}
		~array()
		{
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			for(size_type i = 0; i < m_size; i++) m_arr[i].~element();
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			if( m_arr != NULL ) free(m_arr);
			m_arr = NULL;
			m_size = 0;
		}
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		__INLINE const element & operator [] (size_type n) const 
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		{
			assert(n < m_size);
			return m_arr[n];
		}
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		__INLINE element & operator [] (size_type n) 
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		{
			assert(n < m_size);
			return m_arr[n];
		}
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		__INLINE const element & at (size_type n) const 
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		{
			assert(n < m_size);
			return m_arr[n];
		}
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		__INLINE element & at (size_type n) 
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		{
			assert(n < m_size);
			return m_arr[n];
		}
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		__INLINE element & at_safe (size_type n) 
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		{
			if( n >= m_size ) resize(n+1);
			return m_arr[n];
		}
		array & operator =(array const & other)
		{
			if( this != &other )
			{
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				for(size_type i = 0; i < m_size; i++) m_arr[i].~element();
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				if(m_arr != NULL ) 
				{
					free(m_arr);
					m_arr = NULL;
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					m_size = 0;
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				}
				if( other.m_arr != NULL )
				{
					m_size = other.m_size;
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					m_arr = static_cast<element *>(malloc(sizeof(element)*growth_formula(m_size)));
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					assert(m_arr != NULL);
					memcpy(m_arr,other.m_arr,sizeof(element)*m_size);
				}
			}
			return *this;
		}
		void push_back(const element & e)
		{
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#if !defined(USE_OPTIMIZED_ARRAY_ALLOCATION)
			//unoptimized variant
			if( m_size+1 > growth_formula(m_size) )
				m_arr = static_cast<element *>(realloc(m_arr,sizeof(element)*growth_formula(++m_size)));
			else ++m_size;
#else
			//optimized for current growth_formula
			if( m_size < 2 )
				m_arr = static_cast<element *>(realloc(m_arr,sizeof(element)*(++m_size)));
			else if( ((m_size+1) & (m_size-1)) == 1 )
				m_arr = static_cast<element *>(realloc(m_arr,sizeof(element)*(m_size++ << 1)));
			else m_size++;
#endif
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			assert(m_arr != NULL);
			new (m_arr+m_size-1) element(e);
		}
		void pop_back()
		{
			assert(m_arr != NULL);
			m_arr[m_size--].~element();
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			if( m_size > 0)
			{
#if !defined(USE_OPTIMIZED_ARRAY_ALLOCATION)
				//unoptimized variant
				size_type gf = growth_formula(m_size);
				if( m_size+1 > gf )
					m_arr = static_cast<element *>(realloc(m_arr,sizeof(element)*gf));
#else
				if( ((m_size+1) & (m_size-1)) == 1 || m_size == 1)
					m_arr = static_cast<element *>(realloc(m_arr,sizeof(element)*m_size));
#endif
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				assert(m_arr != NULL);
			} 
			else 
			{
				free(m_arr);
				m_arr = NULL;
			}
		}
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		__INLINE element & back() 
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		{
			assert(m_arr != NULL);
			assert(m_size > 0);
			return m_arr[m_size-1];
		}
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		__INLINE const element & back() const 
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		{
			assert(m_arr != NULL);
			assert(m_size > 0);
			return m_arr[m_size-1];
		}
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		__INLINE element & front() 
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		{
			assert(m_arr != NULL);
			assert(m_size > 0);
			return m_arr[0];
		}
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		__INLINE const element & front() const 
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		{
			assert(m_arr != NULL);
			assert(m_size > 0);
			return m_arr[0];
		}
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		__INLINE size_type capacity() { return m_size; }
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		__INLINE bool empty() const { if( m_size ) return false; return true; }
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		void resize(size_type n, element c = element() )
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		{
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			size_type oldsize = m_size;
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			m_size = n;
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			for(size_type i = m_size; i < oldsize; i++) m_arr[i].~element(); //delete elements, located over the size
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			if( m_size > 0 )
			{
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				if( growth_formula(oldsize) != growth_formula(m_size) )
					m_arr = static_cast<element *>(realloc(m_arr,sizeof(element)*growth_formula(m_size)));
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				assert(m_arr != NULL);
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				for(size_type i = oldsize; i < m_size; i++) new (m_arr+i) element(c); //initialize extra entities
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			}
			else
			{
				free(m_arr);
				m_arr = NULL;
			}
		}
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		__INLINE size_type size() const {return m_size;}
		__INLINE size_type capacity() const {return growth_formula(m_size);}
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		void clear() 
		{ 
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			for(size_type i = 0; i < m_size; i++) m_arr[i].~element();
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			m_size = 0; 
			if( m_arr ) free(m_arr); 
			m_arr = NULL; 
		}
		void swap(array<element> & other)
		{
			element * t_m_arr = m_arr;
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			size_type t_m_size = m_size;
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			m_arr = other.m_arr;
			m_size = other.m_size;
			other.m_arr = t_m_arr;
			other.m_size = t_m_size;
		}
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		__INLINE iterator begin() { return m_arr; }
		__INLINE iterator end() { return m_arr+m_size; }
		__INLINE const_iterator begin() const { return m_arr; }
		__INLINE const_iterator end() const { return m_arr+m_size; }
		__INLINE reverse_iterator rbegin() { return reverse_iterator(m_arr+m_size-1); }
		__INLINE reverse_iterator rend() { return reverse_iterator(m_arr-1); }
		__INLINE const_reverse_iterator rbegin() const { return const_reverse_iterator(m_arr+m_size-1); }
		__INLINE const_reverse_iterator rend() const { return const_reverse_iterator(m_arr-1); }
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		iterator erase(iterator pos) 
		{ 
			ptrdiff_t d = pos-begin();
			ptrdiff_t s = iterator(m_arr+m_size-1)-pos;
			(*pos).~element();
			m_size--;
			if( m_size > 0 )
			{
				if( s > 0 ) memmove(m_arr+d,m_arr+d+1,sizeof(element)*s);
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				//unoptimized variant
#if !defined(USE_OPTIMIZED_ARRAY_ALLOCATION)
				size_type gf = growth_formula(m_size);
				if( m_size+1 > gf )
					m_arr = static_cast<element *>(realloc(m_arr,sizeof(element)*gf));
#else
				if( ((m_size+1) & (m_size-1)) == 1 || m_size == 1)
					m_arr = static_cast<element *>(realloc(m_arr,sizeof(element)*m_size));
#endif
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				assert(m_arr != NULL);
			}
			else
			{
				free(m_arr);
				m_arr = NULL;
			}
			return m_arr+d;
		}
		iterator erase(iterator b, iterator e)
		{
			ptrdiff_t d = b-begin();
			ptrdiff_t s = end()-e;
			ptrdiff_t n = e-b;
			for(iterator i = b; i != e; i++) (*i).~element();
			m_size -= n;
			if( m_size > 0 )
			{
				if( s > 0 ) memmove(m_arr+d,m_arr+d+1,sizeof(element)*s);
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				size_type gf = growth_formula(m_size);
				if( m_size+n > gf )
					m_arr = static_cast<element *>(realloc(m_arr,sizeof(element)*gf));
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				assert(m_arr != NULL);
			}
			else
			{
				free(m_arr);
				m_arr = NULL;
			}
			return m_arr+d;
		}
		iterator insert(iterator pos, const element & x)
		{
			if( static_cast<void *>(pos) == NULL)
			{
				assert(m_arr == NULL);
				pos = iterator(m_arr = static_cast<element *>(malloc(sizeof(element))));
				assert(m_arr != NULL);
			}
			ptrdiff_t d = pos-begin();
			ptrdiff_t s = end()-pos;
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			//unoptimized variant
#if !defined(USE_OPTIMIZED_ARRAY_ALLOCATION)
			if( m_size+1 > growth_formula(m_size) )
				m_arr = static_cast<element *>(realloc(m_arr,sizeof(element)*growth_formula(++m_size)));
			else ++m_size;
#else
			//optimized for current growth_formula
			if( m_size < 2 )
				m_arr = static_cast<element *>(realloc(m_arr,sizeof(element)*(++m_size)));
			else if( ((m_size+1) & (m_size-1)) == 1 )
				m_arr = static_cast<element *>(realloc(m_arr,sizeof(element)*(m_size++ << 1)));
			else ++m_size;
#endif
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			assert(m_arr != NULL);
			if( s > 0 ) memmove(m_arr+d+1,m_arr+d,sizeof(element)*s);
			new (m_arr+d) element(x);
			return m_arr+d;
		}
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		void insert(iterator pos, size_type n, const element & x)
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		{
			if( n > 0 )
			{
				if( static_cast<void *>(pos) == NULL)
				{
					assert(m_arr == NULL);
					pos = iterator(m_arr = static_cast<element *>(malloc(sizeof(element))));
					assert(m_arr != NULL);
				}
				ptrdiff_t d = pos-begin();
				ptrdiff_t s = end()-pos;
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				if( m_size+n > growth_formula(m_size) )
					m_arr = static_cast<element *>(realloc(m_arr,sizeof(element)*growth_formula(m_size+n)));
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				m_size+=n;
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				assert(m_arr != NULL);
				if( s > 0 ) memmove(m_arr+d+n,m_arr+d,sizeof(element)*s);
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				for(size_type i = 0; i < n; i++) new (m_arr+d+i) element(x);
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			}
		}
		template <class InputIterator>
		void insert(iterator pos, InputIterator first, InputIterator last)
		{
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			size_type n = static_cast<size_type>(std::distance(first,last));
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			if( n > 0 )
			{
				if( static_cast<void *>(pos) == NULL)
				{
					assert(m_arr == NULL);
					pos = iterator(m_arr = static_cast<element *>(malloc(sizeof(element))));
					assert(m_arr != NULL);
				}
				ptrdiff_t d = pos-begin();
				ptrdiff_t s = end()-pos;
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				if( m_size+n > growth_formula(m_size) )
					m_arr = static_cast<element *>(realloc(m_arr,sizeof(element)*growth_formula(m_size+n)));
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				m_size+=n;
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				assert(m_arr != NULL);
				if( s > 0 ) memmove(m_arr+d+n,m_arr+d,sizeof(element)*s);
				{
					InputIterator it = first;
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					size_type i = 0;
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					while(it != last) new (m_arr+d+i++) element(*it++);
				}
			}
		}
		template <class InputIterator>
		void replace(iterator m_first, iterator m_last, InputIterator first, InputIterator last)
		{
			assert( m_size >= 0 );
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			ptrdiff_t n = static_cast<ptrdiff_t>(std::distance(first,last));
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			if( static_cast<void *>(m_first) == NULL && m_arr == NULL)
			{
				assert(m_arr == NULL);
				m_first = m_last = iterator(m_arr = static_cast<element *>(malloc(sizeof(element))));
				assert(m_arr != NULL);
			}
			ptrdiff_t q = m_last-m_first; 
			ptrdiff_t d = m_first-iterator(m_arr);
			ptrdiff_t s = iterator(m_arr+m_size)-m_last;
			for(iterator it = m_first; it != m_last; it++) (*it).~element();
			if( n-q != 0 )
			{
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				size_type gf = growth_formula(m_size+static_cast<size_type>(n-q));
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				if( gf != growth_formula(m_size) )
					m_arr = static_cast<element *>(realloc(m_arr,sizeof(element)*gf));
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				m_size+=static_cast<size_type>(n-q);
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				if( s > 0 ) memmove(m_arr+d+n,m_arr+d+q,sizeof(element)*s);
			}
			{
				InputIterator it = first;
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				size_type i = 0;
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				while(it != last) new (m_arr+d+i++) element(*it++);
			}
		}
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		template <class InputIterator>
		void assign(InputIterator first, InputIterator last)
		{
			replace(begin(),end(),first,last);
		}
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		template<class> friend class shell;
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	};
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#if defined(PACK_ARRAY)
#pragma pack(pop,r1)
#endif
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	template<typename element>
	class shell
	{
	public:
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		typedef typename array<element>::size_type size_type;
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		template<typename dtype>
		class _iterator
		{
		private:
			dtype * e;
		public:
			typedef dtype * pointer;
			typedef dtype & reference;
			typedef dtype value_type;
			typedef ptrdiff_t difference_type;
			typedef std::random_access_iterator_tag iterator_category;
			_iterator():e(NULL){}
			_iterator(dtype * i):e(i){}
			_iterator(const _iterator & other){e = other.e;}
			~_iterator() {};
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			_iterator operator -(size_t n) const { return _iterator(e-n); }
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			_iterator & operator -=(size_t n) { e-=n; return *this; }
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			_iterator operator +(size_t n) const { return _iterator(e+n); }
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			_iterator & operator +=(size_t n) { e+=n; return *this; }
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			_iterator & operator ++(){ ++e; return *this;}
			_iterator operator ++(int){ return _iterator(e++); }
			_iterator & operator --(){ --e; return *this; }
			_iterator operator --(int){ return _iterator(e--); }
			ptrdiff_t operator -(const _iterator & other) const {return e-other.e;}
			dtype & operator *() { return *e; }
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			const dtype & operator *() const { return *e; }
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			dtype * operator ->() { return e; }
			_iterator & operator =(_iterator const & other) { e = other.e; return *this; }
			bool operator ==(const _iterator & other) { return e == other.e;}
			bool operator !=(const _iterator & other) { return e != other.e;}
			bool operator <(const _iterator & other) { return e < other.e;}
			bool operator >(const _iterator & other) { return e > other.e;}
			bool operator <=(const _iterator & other) { return e <= other.e;}
			bool operator >=(const _iterator & other) { return e >= other.e;}
			operator void *() {return static_cast<void *> (e);}
		};
		typedef _iterator<element> iterator;
		typedef _iterator<const element> const_iterator;
		template<typename dtype>
		class _reverse_iterator
		{
		private:
			dtype * e;
		public:
			typedef dtype * pointer;
			typedef dtype & reference;
			typedef dtype value_type;
			typedef ptrdiff_t difference_type;
			typedef std::random_access_iterator_tag iterator_category;
			_reverse_iterator():e(NULL){}
			_reverse_iterator(dtype * i):e(i){}
			_reverse_iterator(const _reverse_iterator & other){e = other.e;}
			~_reverse_iterator() {};
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			_reverse_iterator operator -(size_t n) const { return _reverse_iterator(e+n); }
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			_reverse_iterator & operator -=(size_t n) { e+=n; return *this; }
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			_reverse_iterator operator +(size_t n) const {return _reverse_iterator(e-n); }
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			_reverse_iterator & operator +=(size_t n) { e-=n; return *this; }
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			_reverse_iterator & operator ++(){ --e; return *this;}
			_reverse_iterator operator ++(int){ return _reverse_iterator(e--); }
			_reverse_iterator & operator --(){ ++e; return *this; }
			_reverse_iterator operator --(int){ return _reverse_iterator(e++); }
			ptrdiff_t operator -(const _reverse_iterator & other) const {return other.e-e;}
			dtype & operator *() { return *e; }
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			const dtype & operator *() const { return *e; }
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			dtype * operator ->() { return e; }
			_reverse_iterator & operator =(_reverse_iterator const & other) { e = other.e; return *this;}
			bool operator ==(const _reverse_iterator & other) { return e == other.e;}
			bool operator !=(const _reverse_iterator & other) { return e != other.e;}
			bool operator <(const _reverse_iterator & other) { return e < other.e;}
			bool operator >(const _reverse_iterator & other) { return e > other.e;}
			bool operator <=(const _reverse_iterator & other) { return e <= other.e;}
			bool operator >=(const _reverse_iterator & other) { return e >= other.e;}
			operator void *() {return static_cast<void *> (e);}
		};
		typedef _reverse_iterator<element> reverse_iterator;
		typedef _reverse_iterator<const element> const_reverse_iterator;
	private:
		element ** m_arr;
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		size_type * m_size;
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		element * local_link;
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		size_type local_size;
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		bool fixed;
	public:
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		__INLINE element * data() {return *m_arr;}
		__INLINE const element * data() const {return *m_arr;}
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		shell() {m_arr = NULL; m_size = NULL; fixed = false;}
		shell(array<element> & arr) //dynamic
		{
			m_arr = &arr.m_arr;
			m_size = &arr.m_size;
			fixed = false;
		}
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		shell(element * link, size_type size) //fixed
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		{
			m_arr = &local_link;
			*m_arr = link;
			m_size = &local_size;
			*m_size = size;
			fixed = true;
		}
		shell(const shell & other)
		{
			fixed = other.fixed;
			if( fixed )
			{
				m_size = &local_size;
				m_arr = &local_link;
				*m_size = *other.m_size;
				*m_arr = *other.m_arr;
			}
			else
			{
				m_size = other.m_size;
				m_arr = other.m_arr;
			}
		}
		~shell()
		{
		}
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		__INLINE const element & operator [] (size_type n) const 
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		{
			assert(n < *m_size );
			return *((*m_arr)+n);
		}
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		__INLINE element & operator [] (size_type n) 
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		{
			assert(n < *m_size );
			return *((*m_arr)+n);
		}
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		__INLINE const element & at (size_type n) const 
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		{
			assert(n < *m_size );
			return *((*m_arr)+n);
		}
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		__INLINE element & at (size_type n) 
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		{
			assert(n < *m_size );
			return *((*m_arr)+n);
		}
		shell & operator =(shell const & other)
		{
			fixed = other.fixed;
			if( fixed )
			{
				m_size = &local_size;
				m_arr = &local_link;	
				*m_size = *other.m_size;
				*m_arr = *other.m_arr;
			}
			else
			{
				m_size = other.m_size;
				m_arr = other.m_arr;
			}
			return *this;
		}
		void push_back(const element & e)
		{
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			assert( !fixed ); // array size is fixed
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#if !defined(USE_OPTIMIZED_ARRAY_ALLOCATION)
			//unoptimized variant
			if( (*m_size)+1 > array<element>::growth_formula(*m_size) )
				*m_arr = static_cast<element *>(realloc(*m_arr,sizeof(element)*array<element>::growth_formula(++(*m_size))));
			else ++(*m_size);
#else
			//optimized for current growth_formula
			if( *m_size < 2 )
				*m_arr = static_cast<element *>(realloc(*m_arr,sizeof(element)*(++(*m_size))));
			else if( (((*m_size)+1) & ((*m_size)-1)) == 1 )
				*m_arr = static_cast<element *>(realloc(*m_arr,sizeof(element)*((*m_size)++ << 1)));
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			else ++(*m_size);
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#endif
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			assert((*m_arr) != NULL);
			new ((*m_arr)+(*m_size)-1) element(e);
		}
		void pop_back()
		{
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			assert( !fixed ); // array size is fixed
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			assert((*m_arr) != NULL);
			(*m_arr)[(*m_size)--].~element();
			if( (*m_size) > 0 )
			{
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#if !defined(USE_OPTIMIZED_ARRAY_ALLOCATION)
				//unoptimized variant
				size_type gf = array<element>::growth_formula(*m_size);
				if( (*m_size)+1 > gf )
					*m_arr = static_cast<element *>(realloc(m_arr,sizeof(element)*gf));
#else
				if( (((*m_size)+1) & ((*m_size)-1)) == 1 || (*m_size) == 1)
					*m_arr = static_cast<element *>(realloc(*m_arr,sizeof(element)*(*m_size)));
#endif
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				assert( (*m_arr) != NULL );
			}
			else
			{
				free(*m_arr);
				(*m_arr) = NULL;
			}
		}
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		__INLINE element & back() 
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		{
			assert(*m_arr != NULL);
			assert(*m_size > 0 );
			return (*m_arr)[(*m_size)-1];
		}
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		__INLINE const element & back() const 
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		{
			assert(*m_arr != NULL);
			assert(*m_size > 0 );
			return (*m_arr)[(*m_size)-1];
		}
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		__INLINE element & front() 
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		{
			assert(*m_arr != NULL);
			assert(*m_size > 0 );
			return (*m_arr)[0];
		}
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		__INLINE const element & front() const 
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		{
			assert(*m_arr != NULL);
			assert(*m_size > 0 );
			return (*m_arr)[0];
		}
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		__INLINE size_type capacity() { return array<element>::growth_formula(*m_size); }
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		__INLINE bool empty() const { if( *m_size ) return false; return true; }
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		void resize(size_type n, element c = element() )
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		{
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			assert( !fixed ); // array size is fixed
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			size_type oldsize = *m_size;
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			*m_size = n;
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			for(size_type i = *m_size; i < oldsize; i++) (*m_arr)[i].~element(); //delete elements, located over the size
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			if( *m_size > 0 )
			{
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				if( array<element>::growth_formula(oldsize) != array<element>::growth_formula(*m_size) )
					*m_arr = static_cast<element *>(realloc(*m_arr,sizeof(element)*array<element>::growth_formula(*m_size)));
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				assert( (*m_arr) != NULL );
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				for(size_type i = oldsize; i < *m_size; i++) new ((*m_arr)+i) element(c); //initialize extra entities
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			}
			else
			{
				free(*m_arr);
				*m_arr = NULL;
			}
		}
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		__INLINE size_type size() const {return *m_size;}
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		void clear() 
		{ 
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			assert( !fixed ); // array size is fixed
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			for(size_type i = 0; i < *m_size; i++) (*m_arr)[i].~element();
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			*m_size = 0; 
			if( *m_arr ) free(*m_arr); 
			*m_arr = NULL; 
		}
		void swap(shell<element> & other)
		{
			element * t_m_arr = *m_arr;
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			size_type t_m_size = *m_size;
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			*m_arr = *other.m_arr;
			*m_size = *other.m_size;
			*other.m_arr = t_m_arr;
			*other.m_size = t_m_size;
		}
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		__INLINE iterator begin() { return *m_arr; }
		__INLINE iterator end() { return *m_arr+(*m_size); }
		__INLINE const_iterator begin() const { return *m_arr; }
		__INLINE const_iterator end() const { return *m_arr+(*m_size); }
		__INLINE reverse_iterator rbegin() { return reverse_iterator(*m_arr+(*m_size)-1); }
		__INLINE reverse_iterator rend() { return reverse_iterator(*m_arr-1); }
		__INLINE const_reverse_iterator rbegin() const { return const_reverse_iterator(*m_arr+(*m_size)-1); }
		__INLINE const_reverse_iterator rend() const { return const_reverse_iterator(*m_arr-1); }
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		iterator erase(iterator pos) 
		{ 
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			assert( !fixed ); // array size is fixed
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			ptrdiff_t d = pos-begin();
			ptrdiff_t s = iterator(*m_arr+(*m_size)-1)-pos;
			(*pos).~element();
			(*m_size)--;
			if( (*m_size) > 0 )
			{
				if( s > 0 )memmove(*m_arr+d,*m_arr+d+1,sizeof(element)*s);
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#if !defined(USE_OPTIMIZED_ARRAY_ALLOCATION)
				size_type gf = array<element>::growth_formula(*m_size);
				if( (*m_size)+1 > gf )
					*m_arr = static_cast<element *>(realloc(*m_arr,sizeof(element)*gf));
#else
				if( (((*m_size)+1) & ((*m_size)-1)) == 1 || (*m_size) == 1)
					*m_arr = static_cast<element *>(realloc(*m_arr,sizeof(element)*(*m_size)));
#endif
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				assert((*m_arr) != NULL);
			}
			else
			{
				free(*m_arr);
				*m_arr = NULL;
			}
			return (*m_arr)+d;
		}
		iterator erase(iterator b, iterator e)
		{
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			assert( !fixed ); // array size is fixed
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			ptrdiff_t d = b-begin();
			ptrdiff_t s = end()-e;
			ptrdiff_t n = e-b;
			for(iterator i = b; i != e; i++) (*i).~element();
			(*m_size) -= n;
			if( (*m_size) > 0 )
			{
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				if( s > 0 ) memmove(*m_arr+d,*m_arr+d+n,sizeof(element)*s);	
				size_type gf = array<element>::growth_formula(*m_size);
				if( (*m_size)+n > gf )
					*m_arr = static_cast<element *>(realloc(*m_arr,sizeof(element)*gf));
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				assert((*m_arr) != NULL);
			}
			else
			{
				free(*m_arr);
				*m_arr = NULL;
			}
			return (*m_arr)+d;
		}
		iterator insert(iterator pos, const element & x)
		{
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			assert( !fixed ); // array size is fixed
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			if( static_cast<void *>(pos) == NULL )
			{
				assert((*m_arr) == NULL);
				pos = iterator((*m_arr) = static_cast<element *>(malloc(sizeof(element))));
				assert((*m_arr) != NULL);
			}
			ptrdiff_t d = pos-begin();
			ptrdiff_t s = end()-pos;
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#if !defined(USE_OPTIMIZED_ARRAY_ALLOCATION)
			//unoptimized variant
			if( (*m_size)+1 > array<element>::growth_formula(*m_size) )
				*m_arr = static_cast<element *>(realloc(*m_arr,sizeof(element)*array<element>::growth_formula(++(*m_size))));
			else ++(*m_size);
#else
			//optimized for current growth_formula
			if( *m_size < 2 )
				*m_arr = static_cast<element *>(realloc(*m_arr,sizeof(element)*(++(*m_size))));
			else if( (((*m_size)+1) & ((*m_size)-1)) == 1 )
				*m_arr = static_cast<element *>(realloc(*m_arr,sizeof(element)*((*m_size)++ << 1)));
			else ++(*m_size);
#endif
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			assert((*m_arr) != NULL);
			if( s > 0 ) memmove((*m_arr)+d+1,(*m_arr)+d,sizeof(element)*s);
			new ((*m_arr)+d) element(x);
			return (*m_arr)+d;
		}
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		void insert(iterator pos, size_type n, const element & x)
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		{
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			assert( !fixed ); // array size is fixed
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			if( n > 0 )
			{
				if( static_cast<void *>(pos) == NULL)
				{
					assert((*m_arr) == NULL);
					pos = iterator((*m_arr) = static_cast<element *>(malloc(sizeof(element))));
					assert((*m_arr) != NULL);
				}
				ptrdiff_t d = pos-iterator(*m_arr);
				ptrdiff_t s = iterator((*m_arr)+(*m_size))-pos;
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				if( (*m_size)+n > array<element>::growth_formula(*m_size) )
					*m_arr = static_cast<element *>(realloc(*m_arr,sizeof(element)*array<element>::growth_formula((*m_size)+n)));
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				(*m_size)+=n;
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				assert((*m_arr) != NULL);
				if( s > 0 ) memmove((*m_arr)+d+n,(*m_arr)+d,sizeof(element)*s);
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				for(size_type i = 0; i < n; i++) new ((*m_arr)+d+i) element(x);
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			}
		}
		template <class InputIterator>
		void insert(iterator pos, InputIterator first, InputIterator last)
		{
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			assert( !fixed ); // array size is fixed
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			ptrdiff_t n = static_cast<ptrdiff_t>(std::distance(first,last));
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			if( n > 0 )
			{
				if( static_cast<void *>(pos) == NULL)
				{
					assert((*m_arr) == NULL);
					pos = iterator((*m_arr) = static_cast<element *>(malloc(sizeof(element))));
					assert((*m_arr) != NULL);
				}
				ptrdiff_t d = pos-iterator(*m_arr);
				ptrdiff_t s = iterator((*m_arr)+(*m_size))-pos;
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				if( (*m_size)+n > array<element>::growth_formula(*m_size) )
					*m_arr = static_cast<element *>(realloc(*m_arr,sizeof(element)*array<element>::growth_formula((*m_size)+static_cast<size_type>(n))));
				(*m_size)+=static_cast<size_type>(n);

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				assert((*m_arr) != NULL);
				if( s > 0 ) memmove((*m_arr)+d+n,(*m_arr)+d,sizeof(element)*s);
				{
					InputIterator it = first;
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					size_type i = 0;
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					while(it != last) new ((*m_arr)+d+i++) element(*it++);
				}
			}
		}
		template <class InputIterator>
		void replace(iterator m_first, iterator m_last, InputIterator first, InputIterator last)
		{
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			ptrdiff_t n = static_cast<ptrdiff_t>(std::distance(first,last));
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			if( static_cast<void *>(m_first) == NULL)
			{
				assert((*m_arr)==NULL);
				m_first = m_last = iterator((*m_arr) = static_cast<element *>(malloc(sizeof(element))));
				assert((*m_arr)!=NULL);
			}
			ptrdiff_t q = m_last-m_first; 
			ptrdiff_t d = m_first-iterator(*m_arr);
			ptrdiff_t s = iterator((*m_arr)+(*m_size))-m_last;
			for(iterator it = m_first; it != m_last; it++) (*it).~element();
			if( n-q != 0 )
			{
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				assert( !fixed ); // array size is fixed
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				size_type gf = array<element>::growth_formula((*m_size)+static_cast<size_type>(n-q));
				if( gf != array<element>::growth_formula(*m_size) )
					*m_arr = static_cast<element *>(realloc(*m_arr,sizeof(element)*gf));
				(*m_size)+=static_cast<size_type>(n-q);
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			}
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			if( s > 0 ) 
				memmove((*m_arr)+d+n,(*m_arr)+d+q,sizeof(element)*s);
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			{
				InputIterator it = first;
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				size_type i = 0;
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				while(it != last) new ((*m_arr)+d+i++) element(*it++);
			}
		}
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		template <class InputIterator>
		void assign(InputIterator first, InputIterator last)
		{
			replace(begin(),end(),first,last);
		}
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	};


	
	template <typename IndType,typename ValType>	
	class sparse_data
	{
	public:
		typedef unsigned enumerate;
		static const enumerate prealloc = 4;
		typedef struct pair_t
		{
			IndType first;
			ValType second; 
			pair_t() :first(0),second(0.0) {}
			pair_t(IndType first, ValType second) :first(0), second(0.0) {}
		} pair;
		typedef pair * iterator;
		typedef const iterator const_iterator;
	private:
		static int comparator(const void * pa, const void * pb)
		{
			pair * a = (pair *)pa;
			pair * b = (pair *)pb;
			return a->first - b->first;
		}
		pair * array;
		enumerate arr_size;
		enumerate arr_alloc;
		void test_allocate()
		{
			if( arr_size > arr_alloc )
			{
				enumerate old_arr_alloc = arr_alloc;
				while(arr_size > arr_alloc) arr_alloc = arr_alloc << 1;
				array = static_cast<pair *>(realloc(array,arr_alloc*sizeof(pair)));
				assert(array != NULL);
				for (enumerate i = old_arr_alloc; i < arr_alloc; i++) array[i].first = std::numeric_limits<IndType>::max();
				//memset(array+old_arr_alloc,0xff,sizeof(pair)*(arr_alloc-old_arr_alloc));
			}
		}
	public:
		void swap(sparse_data<IndType, ValType> & other)
		{
			pair * tmp = array;
			array = other.array;
			other.array = tmp;
			enumerate itmp = arr_size;
			arr_size = other.arr_size;
			other.arr_size = itmp;
			itmp = arr_alloc;
			arr_alloc = other.arr_alloc;
			other.arr_alloc = itmp;
		}
		void reserve(enumerate size)
		{
			enumerate new_alloc = 1;
			while( new_alloc < size ) new_alloc = new_alloc << 1;
			array = static_cast<pair *>(realloc(array,new_alloc*sizeof(pair)));
			assert(array != NULL);
			for (enumerate i = arr_alloc; i < new_alloc; i++) array[i].first = std::numeric_limits<IndType>::max();
			//memset(array+arr_alloc,0xff,sizeof(pair)*(new_alloc-arr_alloc));
			arr_alloc = new_alloc;
		}
		iterator lower_bound(IndType ind)
		{
			/*
			if( arr_size < 16 )
			{	
				for(enumerate i = 0; i < arr_size; i++)
					if( array[i].first >= ind ) return array+i;
				return array+arr_size;
			}
			*/			
			unsigned k = 0;
			for(unsigned b = arr_alloc >> 1; b ; b = b >> 1)
			{
				unsigned j = k | b;
				if( array[j].first <= ind ) k = j;
			}
			if( array[k].first < ind ) k++;	
			
			return array+k;
		}
		iterator find(IndType ind)
		{
			iterator k = lower_bound(ind);
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			if( k == end() ) return end();
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			if( k->first == ind ) return k;
			return end();
		}
		iterator insert(iterator pos, const IndType & x)
		{
			assert(pos == end() || x < pos->first);//check here that we don't break the order
			ptrdiff_t d = pos-array;
			ptrdiff_t s = arr_size-d;
			arr_size++;
			test_allocate();
			if( s ) memmove(array+d+1,array+d,sizeof(pair)*s);
			(array+d)->first = x;
			new (&(array[d].second)) ValType();
			return array+d;
		}
		void push_back(const pair & in)
		{
			assert(arr_size == 0 || in.first < (array+arr_size-1)->first);//check here that we don't break the order
			arr_size++;
			test_allocate();
			(array+arr_size-1)->first = in.first;
			(array+arr_size-1)->second = in.second;
		}
		iterator erase(iterator pos)
		{ 
			ptrdiff_t d = pos-array;
			ptrdiff_t s = (array+arr_size-1)-pos;
			(pos->second).~ValType();
			memmove(array+d,array+d+1,sizeof(pair)*s);
			arr_size--;
			return array+d;
		}
		sparse_data(pair * first, pair * last)
		{
			arr_size = last-first;
			arr_alloc = static_cast<enumerate>(prealloc);
			if( arr_size <= arr_alloc )
				array = static_cast<pair *>(malloc(arr_alloc*sizeof(pair)));
			else
			{
				array = NULL;
				test_allocate();
			}
			assert(array != NULL);
			memcpy(array,first,sizeof(pair)*arr_size);
			for (enumerate i = arr_alloc; i < arr_size; i++) array[i].first = std::numeric_limits<IndType>::max();
			//memset(array+arr_size,0xff,sizeof(pair)*(arr_alloc-arr_size));
			bool need_sort = false;
			for(enumerate k = 1; k < arr_size; k++)
				if( array[k].first < array[k-1].first )
				{
					need_sort = true;
					break;
				}
			if( need_sort ) qsort(array,sizeof(pair),arr_size,comparator);
		}
		sparse_data()
		{
			arr_size = 0;
			arr_alloc = static_cast<enumerate>(prealloc);
			array = static_cast<pair *>(malloc(sizeof(pair)*arr_alloc));
			assert(array != NULL);
			for (enumerate i = 0; i < arr_alloc; i++) array[i].first = std::numeric_limits<IndType>::max();
			//memset(array,0xff,sizeof(pair)*arr_alloc);
		}
		sparse_data(const sparse_data & other)
		{
			arr_size = other.arr_size;
			arr_alloc = other.arr_alloc;
			array = static_cast<pair *>(malloc(arr_alloc*sizeof(pair)));
			assert(array != NULL);
			memcpy(array,other.array,other.arr_alloc*sizeof(pair));
		}
		~sparse_data()
		{
			for(iterator i = begin(); i != end(); i++) (i->second).~ValType();
			free(array);
			arr_size = arr_alloc = 0;
		}
		sparse_data & operator =(sparse_data const & other)
		{
			if( &other != this )
			{
				for(iterator i = begin(); i != end(); i++) (i->second).~ValType();
				arr_size = other.arr_size;
				arr_alloc = other.arr_alloc;
				array = static_cast<pair *>(realloc(array,arr_alloc*sizeof(pair)));
				assert(array != NULL);
				memcpy(array,other.array,arr_alloc*sizeof(pair));
			}
			return *this;
		}
		ValType & operator [](IndType row)
		{
			iterator q = lower_bound(row);
			if( q != end() && q->first == row ) return q->second;
			return insert(q,row)->second;
		}
		ValType operator [](IndType row) const
		{
			iterator q = lower_bound(row);
			assert(q != end() && q->first == row);
			return q->second;
		}
		enumerate size() const { return arr_size; }
		bool empty() const {return size() == 0; }
		iterator begin() { return array; }
		const_iterator begin() const { return array; }
		iterator end() { return array+arr_size; }
		const_iterator end() const { return array+arr_size; }
		void clear()
		{
			for(iterator i = begin(); i != end(); i++) (i->second).~ValType();
			for (enumerate i = 0; i < arr_size; i++) array[i].first = std::numeric_limits<IndType>::max();
			//memset(array,0xff,sizeof(pair)*arr_size);
			arr_size = 0;	
		}
		enumerate capacity() {return arr_alloc;}
		
	};
	
	
	
	
	template<typename IndType,typename ValType>
	class interval
	{
	public:
		typedef ValType * iterator;
		typedef ValType const * const_iterator;
		//typedef const iterator const_iterator;
	private:
		ValType * array;
		IndType beg_index, end_index;
	public:
		void clear()
		{
			for (IndType i = beg_index; i < end_index; i++) (array[i]).~ValType();
			if (beg_index != end_index) free(array + beg_index);
			array = NULL;
			beg_index = end_index = 0;
		}
		void swap(interval<IndType, ValType> & other)
		{
			{
				IndType tmp = beg_index;
				beg_index = other.beg_index;
				other.beg_index = tmp;
				tmp = end_index;
				end_index = other.end_index;
				other.end_index = tmp;
			}
			{
				ValType * tmp = array;
				array = other.array;
				other.array = tmp;
			}
		}
		interval()
		{
			beg_index = 0;
			end_index = 0;
			array = NULL;//static_cast<ValType *>(malloc(sizeof(ValType)*(end_index-beg_index)));
			//assert(array != NULL);
			//array = array - beg_index;
			//for(IndType i = beg_index; i != end_index; ++i) new (array+i) ValType();
		}
		interval(IndType beg)
		{
			beg_index = beg;
			end_index = beg_index;//+2;
			array = NULL; //static_cast<ValType *>(malloc(sizeof(ValType)*(end_index-beg_index)));
			//assert(array != NULL);
			//array = array - beg_index;
			//for(IndType i = beg_index; i != end_index; ++i) new (array+i) ValType();
		}
		interval(IndType beg, IndType end, ValType c = ValType())
		{
			beg_index = beg;
			end_index = end;
			if (beg != end)
			{
				array = static_cast<ValType *>(malloc(sizeof(ValType)*(end_index - beg_index)));
				assert(array != NULL);
				array = array - beg_index;
				for (IndType i = beg_index; i < end_index; ++i) new (array + i) ValType(c);
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				//std::cout << __FUNCTION__ << " address " << array << std::endl;
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			}
			else array = NULL;
		}
		interval(const interval & other)
		{
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			//std::cout << __FUNCTION__ << std::endl;
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			beg_index = other.beg_index;
			end_index = other.end_index;
			if( beg_index != end_index )
			{
				array = static_cast<ValType *>(malloc(sizeof(ValType)*(end_index-beg_index)));
				assert(array != NULL);
				array = array - beg_index;
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				for(IndType i = beg_index; i < end_index; ++i) 
				{
					new (array+i) ValType(other.array[i]);
				}
				//std::cout << __FUNCTION__ << " address " << array << std::endl;
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			}
			else array = NULL;
		}
		~interval()
		{
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			//std::cout << __FUNCTION__ << " delete address " << array << std::endl;
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			for(IndType i = beg_index; i < end_index; i++) (array[i]).~ValType();
			if( beg_index != end_index ) free(array+beg_index);
			array = NULL;
		}
		interval & operator =(interval const & other)
		{
			if( &other != this )
			{
				for(iterator i = begin(); i != end(); ++i) (*i).~ValType();
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				IndType old_beg_index = beg_index;
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				beg_index = other.beg_index;
				end_index = other.end_index;
				if( beg_index != end_index )
				{
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					array = static_cast<ValType *>(realloc(array+old_beg_index,sizeof(ValType)*(end_index-beg_index)));
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					assert(array != NULL);
					array = array - beg_index;
					for(IndType i = beg_index; i < end_index; ++i) new (array+i) ValType(other.array[i]);
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					//std::cout << __FUNCTION__ << " address " << array << std::endl;
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				}
				else 
				{
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					free(array+old_beg_index);
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					array = NULL;
				}
			}
			return *this;
		}
		ValType & at(IndType row)
		{
			assert(row >= beg_index);
			assert(row < end_index);
			return array[row];
		}
		const ValType & at(IndType row) const
		{
			assert(row >= beg_index);
			assert(row < end_index);
			return array[row];
		}
		ValType & operator [](IndType row)
		{
			//std::cout << "pos: " << row << std::endl;
			/*
			if( row >= end_index )
			{
				IndType new_end_index = 1;
				IndType temp = row-beg_index;
				while( new_end_index <= temp ) new_end_index = new_end_index << 1;
				new_end_index += beg_index;
				//std::cout << "end: " << end_index << " new end: " << new_end_index << std::endl;
				array = static_cast<ValType *>(realloc(array,sizeof(ValType)*(new_end_index-beg_index)));
				IndType end = new_end_index-beg_index;
				for(IndType i = end_index-beg_index; i != end; ++i) new (array+i) ValType();
				end_index = new_end_index;
			}
			if( row >= last_index ) last_index = row+1;
			*/
			assert(row >= beg_index );
			assert(row < end_index );
			return array[row];
		}
		const ValType & operator [](IndType row) const
		{
			assert(row >= beg_index );
			assert(row < end_index );
			return array[row];
		}
		void set_interval_beg(IndType beg)
		{
			IndType shift = beg-beg_index;
			shift_interval(shift);
		}
		void set_interval_end(IndType end)
		{
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			if( end == end_index ) return;
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			if( beg_index != end )
			{
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				ValType * array_new = static_cast<ValType *>(malloc(sizeof(ValType)*(end-beg_index)));
				assert(array_new != NULL);
				array_new = array_new - beg_index;
				for(IndType i = beg_index; i < std::min(end,end_index); ++i) new (array_new+i) ValType(array[i]);
				for(IndType i = end_index; i < end; ++i) new (array_new+i) ValType();
				for(IndType i = beg_index; i < end_index; ++i) array[i].~ValType();

				if( array != NULL ) free(array+beg_index);
				array = array_new;
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			}
			else
			{
				free(array+beg_index);
				array = NULL;
			}
			end_index = end;
		}
		
		void shift_interval(IndType shift)
		{
			array = array + beg_index;
			beg_index += shift;
			end_index += shift;
			array = array - beg_index;
		}
		iterator begin() {return array+beg_index;}
		const_iterator begin() const {return array+beg_index;}
		//const_iterator begin() {return array;}
		iterator end() {return array + end_index;}
		const_iterator end() const {return array + end_index;}
		//const_iterator end() {return array + (end_index-end_index);}
		IndType get_interval_beg() const { return beg_index; }
		IndType get_interval_end() const { return end_index; }
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		int size() const {return end_index - beg_index;}
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		bool empty() const {return beg_index == end_index;}
	};
	
	//this version is safe for std::map
	/*
	template<typename IndType,typename ValType>
	class interval
	{
	public:
		typedef ValType * iterator;
		typedef ValType const * const_iterator;
	private:
		ValType * array;
		IndType beg_index, end_index, last_index;
	public:
		interval()
		{
			beg_index = 0;
			last_index = beg_index;
			end_index = 0;
			array = NULL;
		}
		interval(IndType beg)
		{
			beg_index = beg;
			last_index = beg_index;
			end_index = beg_index;
			array = NULL;
		}
		interval(IndType beg, IndType end)
		{
			beg_index = beg;
			last_index = end;
			end_index = end;
			if( end_index-beg_index > 0 )
			{
				array = static_cast<ValType *>(malloc(sizeof(ValType)*(end_index-beg_index)));
				assert(array != NULL);
				IndType cycle_end = end_index-beg_index;
				for(IndType i = 0; i != cycle_end; ++i) new (array+i) ValType();
			}
			else array = NULL;
		}
		interval(const interval & other)
		{
			beg_index = other.beg_index;
			last_index = other.last_index;
			end_index = other.end_index;
			array = static_cast<ValType *>(malloc(sizeof(ValType)*(end_index-beg_index)));
			assert(array != NULL);
			IndType end = end_index-beg_index;
			for(IndType i = 0; i != end; ++i) 
			{
				//std::cout << this << " " << __FILE__  << ":" << __LINE__ << " call constructor " << i << " obj " << array+i << std::endl;
				new (array+i) ValType(other.array[i]);
			}
		}
		~interval()
		{
			//for(iterator i = begin(); i != end(); ++i) (*i).~ValType();
			for(IndType i = 0; i < end_index-beg_index; i++) (array[i]).~ValType();
			free(array);
		}
		interval & operator =(interval const & other)
		{
			if( &other != this )
			{
				for(iterator i = begin(); i != end(); ++i) (*i).~ValType();
				beg_index = other.beg_index;
				last_index = other.last_index;
				end_index = other.end_index;
				array = static_cast<ValType *>(realloc(array,sizeof(ValType)*(end_index-beg_index)));
				assert(array != NULL);
				IndType end = end_index-beg_index;
				for(IndType i = 0; i != end; ++i) 
				{
					//std::cout << this << " " << __FILE__  << ":" << __LINE__ << " call constructor " << i << " obj " << array+i << std::endl;
					new (array+i) ValType(other.array[i]);
				}
			}
			return *this;
		}
		ValType & operator [](IndType row)
		{
			//std::cout << "pos: " << row << std::endl;
			if( row >= end_index )
			{
				IndType new_end_index = 1;
				IndType temp = row-beg_index;
				while( new_end_index <= temp ) new_end_index = new_end_index << 1;
				new_end_index += beg_index;
				ValType * array_new = static_cast<ValType *>(malloc(sizeof(ValType)*(new_end_index-beg_index)));
				assert(array_new != NULL);
				for(IndType i = 0; i != end_index-beg_index; ++i) 
				{
					new (array_new+i) ValType(*(array+i));
					(*(array+i)).~ValType();
				}
				IndType end = new_end_index-beg_index;
				for(IndType i = end_index-beg_index; i != end; ++i) 
				{
					//std::cout << this << " " << __FILE__  << ":" << __LINE__ << " call constructor " << i << " obj " << array+i << std::endl;
					new (array_new+i) ValType();
				}
				end_index = new_end_index;
				free(array);
				array = array_new;
			}
			if( row >= last_index ) last_index = row+1;
			return array[row-beg_index];
		}
		const ValType & operator [](IndType row) const
		{
			assert(row >= beg_index );
			assert(row < end_index );
			return array[row-beg_index];
		}
		bool empty() const {return beg_index == last_index;}
		void set_interval_beg(IndType beg)
		{
			IndType shift = beg-beg_index;
			shift_interval(shift);
		}
		void set_interval_end(IndType end)
		{
			
			if( end > end_index )
			{
				ValType * array_new = static_cast<ValType *>(malloc(sizeof(ValType)*(end-beg_index)));
				assert(array_new != NULL);
				IndType cycle_end = end_index-beg_index;
				for(IndType i = 0; i != cycle_end; ++i) 
				{
					new (array_new+i) ValType(*(array+i));
					(*(array+i)).~ValType();
				}
				cycle_end = end-beg_index;
				for(IndType i = end_index-beg_index; i != cycle_end; ++i) 
				{
					//std::cout << this << " " << __FILE__  << ":" << __LINE__ << " call constructor " << i << " obj " << array+i << std::endl;
					new (array_new+i) ValType();
				}
				end_index = end;
				free(array);
				array = array_new;
			}
			last_index = end;
		}
		
		void shift_interval(IndType shift)
		{
			beg_index += shift;
			end_index += shift;
			last_index += shift;
		}
		iterator begin() {return array;}
		const_iterator begin() const {return array;}
		iterator end() {return array + (last_index-beg_index);}
		
		const_iterator end() const {return array + (last_index-beg_index);}
		IndType get_interval_beg() const { return beg_index; }
		IndType get_interval_end() const { return last_index; }
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		int size() const {return last_index - beg_index;}
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	};
	*/
	template<typename element, unsigned int stacked>
	class dynarray
	{
	public:
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		typedef size_t size_type;
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		template<typename dtype>
		class _iterator
		{
		private:
			dtype * e;
		public:
			typedef dtype * pointer;
			typedef dtype & reference;
			typedef dtype value_type;
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			typedef size_type difference_type;
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			typedef std::random_access_iterator_tag iterator_category;
			_iterator():e(NULL){}
			_iterator(dtype * i):e(i){}
			_iterator(const _iterator & other){e = other.e;}
			~_iterator() {};
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			_iterator operator -(size_type n) const { return _iterator(e-n); }
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			_iterator & operator -=(size_type n) { e-=n; return *this; }
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			_iterator operator +(size_type n) const { return _iterator(e+n); }
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			_iterator & operator +=(size_type n) { e+=n; return *this; }
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			_iterator & operator ++(){ ++e; return *this;}
			_iterator operator ++(int){ return _iterator(e++); }
			_iterator & operator --(){ --e; return *this; }
			_iterator operator --(int){ return _iterator(e--); }
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			size_type operator -(const _iterator & other) const {return static_cast<size_type>(e-other.e);}
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			dtype & operator *() { return *e; }
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			const dtype & operator *() const { return *e; }
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			dtype * operator ->() { return e; }
			_iterator & operator =(_iterator const & other) { e = other.e; return *this; }
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			bool operator ==(const _iterator & other) const { return e == other.e;}
			bool operator !=(const _iterator & other) const { return e != other.e;}
			bool operator <(const _iterator & other) const { return e < other.e;}
			bool operator >(const _iterator & other) const { return e > other.e;}
			bool operator <=(const _iterator & other) const { return e <= other.e;}
			bool operator >=(const _iterator & other) const { return e >= other.e;}
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			operator void *() {return static_cast<void *> (e);}
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			operator const void *() const {return static_cast<const void *> (e);}
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		};
		typedef _iterator<element> iterator;
		typedef _iterator<const element> const_iterator;
		template<typename dtype>
		class _reverse_iterator
		{
		private:
			dtype * e;
		public:
			typedef dtype * pointer;
			typedef dtype & reference;
			typedef dtype value_type;
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			typedef size_type difference_type;
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			typedef std::random_access_iterator_tag iterator_category;
			_reverse_iterator():e(NULL){}
			_reverse_iterator(dtype * i):e(i){}
			_reverse_iterator(const _reverse_iterator & other){e = other.e;}
			~_reverse_iterator() {};
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			_reverse_iterator operator -(size_type n) const { return _reverse_iterator(e+n); }
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			_reverse_iterator & operator -=(size_type n) { e+=n; return *this; }
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			_reverse_iterator operator +(size_type n) const {return _reverse_iterator(e-n); }
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			_reverse_iterator & operator +=(size_type n) { e-=n; return *this; }
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			_reverse_iterator & operator ++(){ --e; return *this;}
			_reverse_iterator operator ++(int){ return _reverse_iterator(e--); }
			_reverse_iterator & operator --(){ ++e; return *this; }
			_reverse_iterator operator --(int){ return _reverse_iterator(e++); }
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			size_type operator -(const _reverse_iterator & other) const {return static_cast<size_type>(other.e-e);}
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			dtype & operator *() { return *e; }
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			const dtype & operator *() const { return *e; }
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			dtype * operator ->() { return e; }
			_reverse_iterator & operator =(_reverse_iterator const & other) { e = other.e; return *this;}
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			bool operator ==(const _reverse_iterator & other) const { return e == other.e;}
			bool operator !=(const _reverse_iterator & other) const { return e != other.e;}
			bool operator <(const _reverse_iterator & other) const { return e < other.e;}
			bool operator >(const _reverse_iterator & other) const { return e > other.e;}
			bool operator <=(const _reverse_iterator & other) const { return e <= other.e;}
			bool operator >=(const _reverse_iterator & other) const { return e >= other.e;}
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			operator void *() {return static_cast<void *> (e);}
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			operator const void *() const {return static_cast<const void *> (e);}
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		};
		typedef _reverse_iterator<element> reverse_iterator;
		typedef _reverse_iterator<const element> const_reverse_iterator;
	private:
		element stack[stacked];
		element * pbegin;
		element * pend;
		element * preserved;
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		void preallocate(size_type n)
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		{
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			if( n <= static_cast<size_type>(stacked) )
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			{
				pbegin = stack;
				pend = pbegin + n;
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				preserved = stack+static_cast<size_type>(stacked);
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			}
			else
			{
				pbegin = static_cast<element *>(malloc(sizeof(element)*n));
				assert(pbegin != NULL);
				pend = pbegin+n;
				preserved = pbegin+n;
			}
		}
	public:
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		__INLINE element * data() {return pbegin;}
		__INLINE const element * data() const {return pbegin;}
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		void report_addr()
		{
			std::cout << "stack:     " << &stack << std::endl;
			std::cout << "pbegin:    " << pbegin << std::endl;
			std::cout << "pend:      " << pend << std::endl;
			std::cout << "preserved: " << preserved << std::endl;
			std::cout << "size:      " << pend-pbegin << std::endl;
			std::cout << "reserved:  " << preserved-pbegin << std::endl;
		}
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		void reserve(size_type n)
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		{
			//std::cout << n << std::endl;
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			size_type k = size();
			if( n > static_cast<size_type>(stacked) )
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			{
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				for(size_type i = n; i < k; i++) pbegin[i].~element();
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				if( pbegin == stack )
				{
					pbegin = static_cast<element *>(malloc(sizeof(element)*n));
					assert(pbegin != NULL);
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					for(size_type i = 0; i < k; i++) 
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					{
						new (pbegin+i) element(stack[i]);
						stack[i].~element();
					}
				}
				else
				{
					element * pbegin_new = static_cast<element *>(malloc(sizeof(element)*n));
					assert(pbegin_new != NULL);
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					for(size_type i = 0; i < k; i++) 
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					{
						new (pbegin_new+i) element(pbegin[i]);
						pbegin[i].~element();
					}
					free(pbegin);
					pbegin = pbegin_new;
				}
				pend = pbegin+ (k < n ? k : n);
				preserved = pbegin + n;
			}
			/*
			else if( pbegin != stack )
			{
				memcpy(stack,pbegin,sizeof(element)*n);